Bibliography of computer-aided Drug Design

Updated on 7/18/2014. Currently 2130 references

Binding site prediction / Reviews

2012 / 2011 / 2010 / 2009 / 2006 / 2003 /


  • The distribution of ligand-binding pockets around protein-protein interfaces suggests a general mechanism for pocket formation.
    Gao, Mu and Skolnick, Jeffrey
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2012, 109(10), 3784-3789
    PMID: 22355140     doi: 10.1073/pnas.1117768109
    Protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions are ubiquitous in a biological cell. Here, we report a comprehensive study of the distribution of protein-ligand interaction sites, namely ligand-binding pockets, around protein-protein interfaces where protein-protein interactions occur. We inspected a representative set of 1,611 representative protein-protein complexes and identified pockets with a potential for binding small molecule ligands. The majority of these pockets are within a 6\AA} distance from protein interfaces. Accordingly, in about half of ligand-bound protein-protein complexes, amino acids from both sides of a protein interface are involved in direct contacts with at least one ligand. Statistically, ligands are closer to a protein-protein interface than a random surface patch of the same solvent accessible surface area. Similar results are obtained in an analysis of the ligand distribution around domain-domain interfaces of 1,416 nonredundant, two-domain protein structures. Furthermore, comparable sized pockets as observed in experimental structures are present in artificially generated protein complexes, suggesting that the prominent appearance of pockets around protein interfaces is mainly a structural consequence of protein packing and thus, is an intrinsic geometric feature of protein structure. Nature may take advantage of such a structural feature by selecting and further optimizing for biological function. We propose that packing nearby protein-protein or domain-domain interfaces is a major route to the formation of ligand-binding pockets.


  • Beyond structural genomics: computational approaches for the identification of ligand binding sites in protein structures.
    Ghersi, Dario and Sanchez, Roberto
    Journal of structural and functional genomics, 2011, 12(2), 109-117
    PMID: 21537951     doi: 10.1007/s10969-011-9110-6
    Structural genomics projects have revealed structures for a large number of proteins of unknown function. Understanding the interactions between these proteins and their ligands would provide an initial step in their functional characterization. Binding site identification methods are a fast and cost-effective way to facilitate the characterization of functionally important protein regions. In this review we describe our recently developed methods for binding site identification in the context of existing methods. The advantage of energy-based approaches is emphasized, since they provide flexibility in the identification and characterization of different types of binding sites.


  • Druggable pockets and binding site centric chemical space: a paradigm shift in drug discovery
    Pérot, Stéphanie and Sperandio, Olivier and Miteva, Maria A. and Camproux, Anne-Claude and Villoutreix, Bruno O.
    Drug discovery today, 2010, 15(15-16), 656-667
    PMID: 20685398     doi: 10.1016/j.drudis.2010.05.015
    Detection, comparison and analyses of binding pockets are pivotal to structure-based drug design endeavors, from hit identification, screening of exosites and de-orphanization of protein functions to the anticipation of specific and non-specific binding to off- and anti-targets. Here, we analyze protein-ligand complexes and discuss methods that assist binding site identification, prediction of druggability and binding site comparison. The full potential of pockets is yet to be harnessed, and we envision that better understanding of the pocket space will have far-reaching implications in the field of drug discovery, such as the design of pocket-specific compound libraries and scoring functions.

  • Computational approaches to identifying and characterizing protein binding sites for ligand design.
    Henrich, Stefan and Salo-Ahen, Outi M H and Huang, Bingding and Rippmann, Friedrich F and Cruciani, Gabriele and Wade, Rebecca C
    Journal of molecular recognition : JMR, 2010, 23(2), 209-219
    PMID: 19746440     doi: 10.1002/jmr.984
    Given the three-dimensional structure of a protein, how can one find the sites where other molecules might bind to it? Do these sites have the properties necessary for high affinity binding? Is this protein a suitable target for drug design? Here, we discuss recent developments in computational methods to address these and related questions. Geometric methods to identify pockets on protein surfaces have been developed over many years but, with new algorithms, their performance is still improving. Simulation methods show promise in accounting for protein conformational variability to identify transient pockets but lack the ease of use of many of the (rigid) shape-based tools. Sequence and structure comparison approaches are benefiting from the constantly increasing size of sequence and structure databases. Energetic methods can aid identification and characterization of binding pockets, and have undergone recent improvements in the treatment of solvation and hydrophobicity. The "druggability" of a binding site is still difficult to predict with an automated procedure. The methodologies available for this purpose range from simple shape and hydrophobicity scores to computationally demanding free energy simulations.


  • Predicting druggable binding sites at the protein-protein interface.
    Fuller, Jonathan C and Burgoyne, Nicholas J and Jackson, Richard M
    Drug discovery today, 2009, 14(3-4), 155-161
    PMID: 19041415     doi: 10.1016/j.drudis.2008.10.009
    Protein-protein interfaces are highly attractive targets for drug discovery because they are involved in a large number of disease pathways where therapeutic intervention would bring widespread benefit. Recent successes have challenged the widely held belief that these targets are 'undruggable'. The pocket finding algorithms described here show marked differences between the binding pockets that define protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and those that define protein-ligand interactions (PLIs) of currently marketed drugs. In the case of PPIs, drug discovery methods that simultaneously target several small pockets at the protein-protein interface are likely to increase the chances of success in this new and important field of therapeutics.


  • Methods for the Prediction of Protein-Ligand Binding Sites for Structure-Based Drug Design and Virtual Ligand Screening.
    R Laurie, Alasdair T and Jackson, Richard M
    Current Protein & Peptide Science, 2006, 7(5), 395-406
    doi: 10.2174/138920306778559386
    Structure Based Drug Design (SBDD) is a computational approach to lead discovery that uses the three- dimensional structure of a protein to fit drug-like molecules into a ligand binding site to modulate function. Identifying the location of the binding site is therefore a vital first step in this process, restricting the search space for SBDD or virtual screening studies. The detection and characterisation of functional sites on proteins has increasingly become an area of interest. Structural genomics projects are increasingly yielding protein structures with unknown functions and binding sites. Binding site prediction was pioneered by pocket detection, since the binding site is often found in the largest pocket. More recent methods involve phylogenetic analysis, identifying structural similarity with proteins of known function and identifying regions on the protein surface with a potential for high binding affinity. Binding site prediction has been used in several SBDD projects and has been incorporated into several docking tools. We discuss different methods of ligand binding site prediction, their strengths and weaknesses, and how they have been used in SBDD.


  • Ligand binding: functional site location, similarity and docking
    Campbell, S J and Gold, N D and Jackson, R M
    Current opinion in\ldots}, 2003, 13, 389-395
    ... Similarly, the evidence is that structural (or feature) similarity in the binding sites of proteins will ... The possibility that protein docking methods can also be used for site detection and ... tools for the functional characterisation of ligand-binding sites and for structure- based drug design ...

  • Ligand binding: functional site location, similarity and docking
    Campbell, S J and Gold, N D and Jackson, R M
    Current opinion in\ldots}, 2003, 13, 389-395
    ... Similarly, the evidence is that structural (or feature) similarity in the binding sites of proteins will ... The possibility that protein docking methods can also be used for site detection and ... tools for the functional characterisation of ligand-binding sites and for structure- based drug design ...